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The Clifton Rocks Railway was an underground funicular railway in Bristol, which also served as a WW2 air-raid shelter.
The tunnel through the limestone cliffs was 500ft long and ran 230ft deep. It carried 427,000 people in the first year of operation - a marvel of engineering, 

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The Hagia Sophia, a significant historical monument in Istanbul, Turkey, houses a fascinating piece of Viking history. A Viking graffito of a ship with a dragonhead prow is etched on a column in the south gallery of the Hagia Sophia. This graffito dates back to around the 9th-10th century CE, a time when Vikings were known to have walked the streets of Constantinople.
The Hagia Sophia, originally a Christian cathedral commissioned by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, has seen the rise and fall of empires and civilizations. It has served as a church, a mosque, and now a museum. The Viking graffiti inside the Hagia Sophia is a testament to the cultural interactions that took place during this period.
The Viking ship graffito is one of four Scandinavian ship graffiti found in the Hagia Sophia. The first, located in the south gallery, shows a ship with a dragonhead on the prow. These graffiti are valuable examples of medieval art and provide insights into the historical presence and influence of the Vikings in Constantinople. The exact reasons for their creation remain a mystery, adding to the intrigue and allure of these ancient etchings.


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A section of Hadrian's Wall at Planetrees in Northumberland, England—how it may have appeared during construction in the 120s AD, and now. 

This small surviving section of Hadrian's Wall is interesting because it shows a change in width from about 10 Roman feet to 8.¹ This was presumably to facilitate or speed up construction. Perhaps the Romans were running low of stone, or lime for the mortar. There were also other changes to the design of the Wall during its construction. The initial plan seems to have been for a broad curtain wall with milecastles every Roman mile² (approximately) and two turrets / observation towers in between. But during and after construction of the Wall, larger forts were added. Is this why the Romans changed to a narrower gauge: so they could use the saved stone for the forts without having to quarry huge amounts to build them? 

The Wall was built from timber and turf in the west, and stone in the central and eastern sectors. Eventually, the timber and turf sector was rebuilt in stone, thus creating a 73-mile-long³ 15- to 21-feet-high stone wall with (arguably) 16 forts (13, possibly 14, of which were attached), up to 80 milecastles, and approximately 160 turrets/towers. A truly magnificent structure!

. . .

Reconstruction: English Heritage (artist not mentioned).


1. A Roman foot is believed to be just shy of a modern one.
2. A Roman mile is just shy of one and a half kilometres (about 1481 metres, approximately). A modern mile is 1,609 metres.
3.  Hadrian's Wall was 80 Roman miles long (73 modern miles).


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The Vespasianus Titus Tunnel, is a massive corridor cut through a mountain, located in modern-day Samandag-Cevlik, Turkey. A remarkable Roman engineering feat built over 2,000 years ago to divert floodwaters threatening the harbor of Seleucia Pieria. Though named after Emperor Titus, it was initiated during Vespasianus' reign and completed under Antonius Pius. The tunnel, carved through solid rock by Roman engineers and laborers, spanned 1.4 km and remains well-preserved, showcasing Roman ingenuity in civil engineering.


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Titus Caesar Vespasianus 
30 December 39 – 13 September AD 81
was Roman emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, becoming the first Roman emperor to succeed his biological father.


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More than 10,000 artifacts found at ‘Birthplace of Texas’ reveal town’s secrets

Archaeologists have unearthed more than 10,000 artifacts in an abandoned town known as the “Birthplace of Texas,” located near the banks of the Brazos River in Washington County, Texas. The town, named Washington-on-the-Brazos, holds historical significance as the site where the Texas Declaration of Independence was signed on March 2, 1836.

The excavation, part of a $51 million renovation and expansion project, has revealed a wealth of historical artifacts. Among the discoveries are fragments of glass and ceramics, nails, and the base of a brick fireplace indicating the location of a tavern. Notably, coins from 1831 and 1820 were found within the ruins of the tavern...


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The kidnapping of the Lindbergh baby captured the attention of the entire nation. Aviation hero Charles Lindbergh and his wife discovered a ransom note in their 20-month-old child’s empty room on March 1st demanding $50,000. The baby’s body was discovered on #ThisDayInHistory in 1932. Kidnapping was made a federal crime in the aftermath of this high-profile case. 


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The Cosquer Cave located in Cap Morgiou, Marseille, France is situated about 37 meters (121 feet) below sea level and its entrance lies about 37 meters (121 feet) underwater. This underwater entrance suggests that the sea level was significantly lower during the time the cave was inhabited by prehistoric humans, allowing access to the cave without diving equipment.

The cave contains around 600 paintings and engravings, which are predominantly of animals such as horses, bison, ibex, and seals, as well as numerous hand stencils. These artworks provide valuable insights into the lives and beliefs of the people who inhabited the region during the Upper Paleolithic period.

Due to the unique underwater entrance and the fragile nature of the cave’s contents, access to the cave is strictly regulated, and special permission is required for scientific research or exploration. In recent years, efforts have been made to study and preserve the cave and its invaluable cultural heritage.


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Moby Dick or The Whale is a novel by Herman Melville, first published in 1851. It is a classic work of American literature and is considered one of the greatest novels ever written.

The novel tells the story of Ishmael, a sailor who signs up for a whaling voyage as a way to escape from the land and his own inner demons. The ship’s captain, Ahab, is obsessed with hunting and killing a giant white sperm whale, which he believes has caused him great harm. The whale, which Ahab refers to as “Moby Dick,” becomes the ultimate object of Ahab’s obsession and the driving force behind the voyage.

As the ship sets sail, Ishmael becomes drawn into Ahab’s quest, and the two men, along with the rest of the crew, embark on a dangerous and tumultuous journey across the ocean. Along the way, they encounter various obstacles and dangers, including storms, pirates, and clashes with other whales.
Despite the challenges they face, Ahab remains determined to capture and kill Moby Dick, no matter what the cost...

The novel explores themes of obsession, madness, and the destructive power of nature. It is a complex and nuanced work that has been widely admired and studied by readers and critics alike.

In Moby Dick, Melville reflects on evil as represented in the principal characters: on the one hand the whale, which represents senseless evil, as it destroys everything it comes across; on the other hand Captain Ahab, who represents a stubborn evil, as his personal hatered and desire for revenge makes him hunt the whale down, even though he is putting his men's lives at risk.

The novel raises many religious and philosophical questions and has many allusions to themes from the Bible.

Book: [ad] https://amzn.to/4bbyBUf


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