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A Study of Job


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Job Introduction and Chapter 1

By: Jim Crews

 

Job is the first of five books that are known as books of poetry. Who wrote the book, and when? No one really knows. Jewish tradition attributes the book to Moses, and other authors have been suggested. Some say it was written by Job himself. Others say it was Elihu, Solomon, Isaiah, Hezekiah, or maybe even Baruch, who was Jeremiah's scribe. Who wrote it is not important or God would have revealed the author.

 

In what time period did Job live? The historical events appear to be set during the Patriarchal Age, sometime between Noah and Moses. There are no allusions to the Law of Moses in the book, but there is a mention of the flood.  Job functions as a priest in offering sacrifices for his family,  similar to what we find with Abraham. His longevity is typical of the patriarchs. For those reasons, Job is often placed historically as a contemporary with Abraham. 

 

We know from his being mentioned in other passages of scripture that Job was a real man, and not a fictional character. Now let's get into the book of Job.

 

Job 1: 1 - 5

Job was from the land of Uz. He was blameless and a follower of God. He had 7 sons and 3 daughters. He was blessed with huge herds of cattle. He also had many servants. He was known as the greatest man of the people of the east. 

Like the Patriarchs, Job sacrificed to God himself. He did this for his family as well, in case they had sinned against God. 

 

Job 1: 6 - 12

There was a day when the sons of God and Satan all came to present themselves before God. God questioned Satan and then mentioned Job to him. God knew that Satan had been working on Job, so He brought it up to teach him a lesson. Satan, of course, didn’t catch on.  Fulfilling his role as accuser, he accused Job of only being loyal to God because God had blessed him with so much. God allowed Satan to tempt Job, in order to test him. 

 

Job 1: 13 - 19

All that Job had been blessed with was taken away from him in the space of one day. He was left with only his wife and the 4 servants who brought the news.

 

Job 1: 20 - 22

How did Job react to this tragedy? Job accepted it. He blessed God in his time of great loss as he had in his times of great wealth. He didn’t sin, nor did he blame God for his losses. This showed that Satan had been wrong. All had been taken from him, yet Job still worshiped God. Satan had lost this round, as God knew that he would. 

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Job 2

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 2: 1 - 6

Here we have another time where the sons of God and Satan come before Him. God tells Satan that Job has remained faithful in spite of all the evils that Satan has done to him. Being the accuser, Satan once again brings an accusation against Job. He says Job will lose his faith if he is personally ailing. So God, knowing how it will turn out, allows this test of Job to continue, with the warning that Satan can not kill him. 

 

Job 2: 7 - 8

Satan struck Job with painful sores from his head to his feet. 

 

Job 2: 9 - 10

The only relative Job had been left with from the previous testing was his wife, which may have even been a part of Satan’s plan, as we see here. She told Job to curse God and die so that he could be relieved of all of his pains. Despite the pain and the nagging wife, Job refused to sin. He remained faithful to God, as we will see. 

 

Job 2: 11 - 13

Job also had four friends who saw his suffering and came by to visit and comfort him. The youngest didn’t get mentioned until he actually spoke. 

Job was so bad off that they didn’t recognize him from a distance because of the sores. They all sat together for a week without speaking, because they saw how great Job’s suffering was. This was probably the most peaceful time Job had during the trial, because, as we will see, they began to argue with him. 

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Job 3

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 3: 1 - 10

Following that week of silent sitting, Job began to speak. He didn’t curse God, as his wife had advised, but he did curse the day that he had been born. He spoke several curses about his day of birth, mainly that it existed and allowed him to be born in the first place. He also speaks of leviathan, which we will see later in this book was nothing more than a water dinosaur. 

 

Job 3: 11 - 19

He asks why he did not die at birth. He wishes he would have died as a very young newborn. Then he would be at rest, instead of suffering all of the things he was going through. He wishes he would have been stillborn, so he could be at rest in eternity. 

 

Job 3: 20 - 28

He then asks why life is given to those who live in misery and pain. 

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Job 4

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 4: 1 - 6

Job’s friend Eliphaz answered him. He asks Job if it’s ok for him to speak. He begins by stating that Job has helped many who were afflicted, and now that affliction has come to him, he is not patient enough to accept it. He asks Job if his fear of God is what gives him confidence, integrity, and hope. 


Job 4: 7 - 11

Speaking from his own experiences, and not by the inspiration of God, Eliphaz then falsely claims that nothing bad ever happens to the innocent. He states that only the wicked have evil things to happen to them. 

 

Job 4: 12 - 21

He then tries to use a dream that he had to convince Job that what he’s saying is true. He tries to ask can mortal man be right before God and be pure in God’s sight? Eliphaz’s answer is no, but we know that God makes us right before Him and pure in His sight if we are faithfully obedient to His Word. Eliphaz, though, sounds like a precursor to John Calvin. 

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Job 5

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 5: 1 - 7

Eliphaz continues showing his limited human understanding by telling Job to call out to God and see if he gets an answer. He tries to tell Job that man is evil from birth. 

 

Job 5: 8 - 16

Eliphaz continues with his false view of God. He says God actively interferes with life. He claims God sends the rain on the good and the just, but fails to mention that God also sends it on the unjust. He is basically claiming that no good, righteous person will ever suffer, so since Job is suffering, he must be a sinner. 

 

Job 5: 17 - 27

He tells Job that God is evidently punishing him for being a sinner. He advises Job that this disciplinary action from God will go away eventually. We can see from scripture, which neither Eliphaz nor Job had, that this is false. Eliphaz bases his advice on his limited human knowledge. God hasn’t revealed any of this to him. 


 

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Job 6

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 6: 1 - 7

Here Job is still feeling very down. He wishes that his plight would come to an end, but believes he has spoken rashly. He believes that God is against him because of the things he is going through. 

 

Job 6: 8 - 13

Job wishes that God would just go ahead and let him die. This would bring him relief from his suffering. He knows that there is nothing he can do to help himself out of this painful situation. 

 

Job 6: 14 - 23

His friends are no help. When troubles come, they abandon him. They are afraid of his situation and offer nothing that comforts him, though he hasn’t asked them for anything. 

 

Job 6: 24 - 27

If only his friends would teach him what it was he had done. However, their words are meaningless to him because they don’t know what they are talking about. 

 

Job 6: 28 - 30

He is not going to speak any injustice against them, though they are of no help. He just cannot fathom what has caused this calamity to befall him. 

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Job 7

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 7: 1 - 6

Man’s days are long and hard on the earth anyway, but Job is wondering why he has had added hardship to them. 

 

Job 7: 7 - 10

Job knows his death will come eventually, like it comes to all of us. The one who dies does not return from the afterlife. 

 

Job 7: 11 - 21

Since he perceives that he doesn’t have much longer to live, he will speak his mind about things. He tells Eliphaz that his speech has been of no aid, but has only frightened him more. He then questions why God has chosen to do this to him. 

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Job 8

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 8: 1 - 7

Bildad then answered Job, with just as bad of council as Job had previously received from Eliphaz. He told Job that he had said nothing of importance. He then continued by implying that since Job’s children had been killed, they had evidently sinned and this was God’s retribution. He told Job that if he were pure and upright, God would restore all to him. 

 

Job 1: 8 - 10

Bildad then told Job to look at how things had worked out in past history as a guide. 

 

Job 1: 11 - 19

Bildad then gives some worldly examples and says that Job has evidently forgotten God and is being punished for this. 

 

Job 1: 20 - 22

Bildad concludes by implying that Job was to blame for all his own problems, since, if he had been blameless, God would not have been punishing him. 

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Job 9

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 9: 1 - 12

Job asks how can man be right before God? We can’t contend with God. We can’t answer Him. God is wiser and stronger than any man. Job mentions several examples to prove this. God makes the earthquakes. God stretched out the universe. His Word causes the rising and setting sun. He made the constellations. No one can see God. No one can question God. 

 

Job 9: 13 - 24

Job realizes that he has no way to answer God. There is nothing Job can do to stand up to God. Even if he is right, his own mouth would condemn him in God’s Presence. 

 

Job 9: 25 - 35

Time is flying. Job knows that no man is innocent before God. Since this is the case, Job wonders why he, or anyone, even tries to please God. He realizes the need for an intercessor, an arbiter between God and humanity, but at that time, there was none. 


 

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Job 10

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 10: 1 - 17

Job hates his life and he will speak his mind about it. He will ask God why He has chosen to do these things to him. He will ask questions trying to understand God’s reasoning. He knows God made him, now he is wondering why God has destroyed him. He would be more accepting if he knew what sin he had committed that caused this to come down on him from God. All the while, Job does not realize that it is Satan doing this to him, not God. 

 

Job 10: 18 - 22

Like a lot of humanity when things like this happen, he questions why God even allowed him to be born. He wishes he had died in the womb. He knows that the days of man are numbered and short, and he wishes God would leave him alone and let him die peacefully. Again, not realizing that it is Satan doing this to him, not God. 

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Job 11

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 11: 1 - 6

Zophar now answers Job. He’s tired of hearing Job proclaim innocence. He says Job is guilty and God is not exacting nearly the penalty that Job has earned. Zophar wishes God would show Job just how depraved that he really was. Again, Zophar isn’t inspired, but speaks only from his limited human understanding, which isn’t understanding at all. However, like all uninspired men, he believes everything he’s saying. 

 

Job 11: 7 - 12

Zophar asks Job if he is able to know anything of God. Is he able to find God’s limits? He answers his own question by saying that no-one can really understand God’s greatness. He then makes a joke about men trying to understand God. 

 

Job 11: 13 - 20

Still assuming Job is guilty of some great sin, Zophar tells him to pray and to repent. By doing this, Zophar says, God will once again bless Job. All of Zophar’s advice comes from the same falsehood that prosperity preachers peddle. He believes that God is going to bless those who serve Him with earthly wealth, fame, and other blessings. 

 

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Job 12

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 12: 1 - 6

Job answered Zophar. He said he had no doubt that his friends were so wise that wisdom would pass away from the world when they did. He, however, has as much understanding as they do. His friends ridicule him for being faithful to God. 

 

Job 12: 7 - 12

We can all see that God exists through His creation, just as Paul taught in Romans 1. Job says everyone knows this. Knowledge, however, is not wisdom. 

 

Job 12: 13 - 25

Wisdom and power exist with God. Man cannot stand against God. Nature cannot stand against God. God rules in the world of men. No king can stand against Him, because He is the one who placed that king into position. There are no secrets from God. He knows all, He sees all. God’s Will is what is going to always be done. 

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Job 13

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 13: 1 - 12

Job tells his friends he has seen and understood everything that they have. He wants to speak his case to God, not his friends. His friends would display their wisdom by keeping silent, since they falsely claim wisdom of God that they cannot possess. 

 

Job 13: 13 - 28

He tells his friends to remain silent. He says even if God decides to kill him, he will continue to hope in Him. Job has prepared what he will say to God. He asks God to call on him, so he can answer. He wants to be told by God just what his sins and iniquities are. 

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Job 14

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 14: 1 - 6

Job continues by stating what he understands about the lives of all humanity. He sees the lives of people full of trouble and short-lived. He then asks how his friends can sit in judgment of him, since they all share the same traits as humans. Job seems to be asking God to leave us alone and allow us to enjoy the few days that He has granted us for life. 

 

Job 14: 7 - 17

While seeing no hope at all for humans, Job sees hope for other things. Trees are cut down and grow back. Humans, he believes, die and are gone forever. He asks God for wisdom to see what really happens at death. 

 

Job 14: 18 - 22

Job sees in his limited wisdom, only time passing and everything being worn down and then gone. He believes there is no hope in men, because they see nothing but death and the wear and tear of time. 

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Job 15

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 15: 1-6

Eliphaz answered Job back. He begins by questioning Job’s wisdom. He asks, is it wise to argue unprofitably? He then accuses Job of hindering meditation and doing away with the fear of God. He tells Job that Job's own words condemn him.

 

Job 15: 7-16

He continues questioning Job's intellect by asking if he's the first to be in this situation. He says Jobs' friends understand what is going on. He claims Jobs' words are against God. He claims God has no love for His sinful creation. 

 

Job 15: 17-35

He now claims that he'll show Job the wisdom of other men about the situation. From this, Eliphaz teaches falsely that God punishes all wicked men while they still live on the Earth. He claims that if something bad happens to someone, it is punishment from God for their sins. It's a shame that there are people still today who believe this.

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Job 16

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 16: 1-5

Job responds. He tells them they are horrible at trying to comfort him. He wonders when all their talk is going to cease. He told them if the situation were reversed, he would be about as successful comforting them as they were him. 

 

Job 16: 8-17

Job falsely believes that God is angry with him and has abandoned him. He, though, will continue to pray.

 

Job 16: 18-22

He prays that he will find someone who can argue his case before God. He seeks an intercessor. 

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Job 17

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 17: 1-2

His spirit is broken and he is ready to die. 

 

Job 17: 3-5

He hopes that his friends, who haven't listened to him, will not triumph. 

 

Job 17: 6-16

Job continues with his feeling of self pity. He feels God has abandoned him to all of this suffering. He can't find a single wise man to provide him comfort. He believes that his only hope is the grave, bringing an end to his life. 

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Job 18

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 18: 1 - 4

Bildad begins to respond to Job. He accuses Job of looking down on him and considering him and his friends to be ignorant. He then implies that Job wants everything to be perfect for himself. 

 

Job 18: 5 - 21

Bildad makes the false claim that evil men are punished right now in the physical world. He claims that if a man is evil, he will never prosper in this life, which implies conversely that if a man is good, he will prosper in this life. The ultimate implication is that Job is suffering because he has evidently done evil. 

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Job 19

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 19: 1 - 12

Job answers by asking how long his friends will torment him with their words. He tells them that they have done nothing but use his situation to build themselves up. Job still continues to blame God for his situation, because he has no way of knowing what is really going on. He cried out to God, and got no response. 

 

Job 19: 13 - 22

Job continues to blame God for separating him from his family and friends. He asks his friends why they torment him as well. 

 

Job 19: 23 - 29

He wishes his words were written in a book, which as we now see, they were. He has full faith that God lives and will be there after he, himself, has died. This is because he knows there will be final judgment. 

 

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Job 20

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 20:1-11

Zophar answered Job. He states more of his beliefs, which we know are false. He claims that the evil and wicked will be dealt with here on earth every time. We know this may happen on earth, but will definitely happen in the afterlife. Zophar claims the punishment for evil deeds of the wicked will be passed along to their descendants. 

 

Job 20:12-19

Zophar continues claiming the evil will always suffer here on earth, which we know is false. He claims they will never be able to enjoy the fruits of their wickedness here on earth, which we also know is false. 

 

Job 20:20-29

Zophar concludes by trying to back up his assertion that all evil and all wickedness will be judged and punished here in the physical world.

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Job 21

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 21:1-16

Job answers Zophar. He tells him to listen, then he can continue to mock Job after he has been heard. Job counters Zophar by asking why the wicked live so long and enjoy so much power? Their descendants also profit from this. He asks what does it profit us to serve God, if the wicked and evil are rewarded and never punished?

 

Job 21: 17-26

He asks when are the wicked punished? Job wishes that Zophar was right, and that the wicked would live to see their own punishment. What good is serving God when we see that one man dies, having never suffered anything in life, while another dies having never known any prosperity at all? Both die and are eaten by worms in the end. 

 

Job 21: 27-34

Job knows they are trying to entrap him with their false beliefs. He says they can clearly observe that nothing they have said is true in reality. Their words of comfort are empty, and their answers are all false. 

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Job 22

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 22:1-11

Eliphaz answers Job. He claims man is only profitable to himself, and that nothing men do can please God, even doing that which is right in God's eyes. He then goes on accusing Job of being punished because of his evil ways. 

 

Job 22: 12-20

He continues by accusing Job of belittling the powers of God. 

 

Job 22: 21-30

He continues with his assumption that Job has done evil and earned this punishment by telling him he needs to return to God and denounce his own evil ways. He tells Job when he does this, God will reward him richly on earth. Eliphaz sounds like Joel Osteen and all the other prosperity gospel false teachers. 

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Job 23

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 23:1-7

Job answers back by telling of his bitterness. He wishes he could find God and speak to Him face to face. Then he feels he would be able to understand what was happening to him. 

 

Job 23: 8-17

However, Job cannot find God anywhere. He does know that once his trials are over, if he overcomes, his faith will be refined as gold. Job knows this because he has never wavered in his faith. He knows this because of his faith in the unchanging nature of God. He is terrified of God, but strong in his belief in the goodness and loving kindness of God. 

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Job 24

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 24:1-12

Job continues by asking why we don't see God being more active. He gives specific examples of how the wicked flourish at the expense of the poor. This also goes into how the poor suffer. Job is pondering the question that a lot of misguided unbelievers have today. 

 

Job 24:13-17

Job questions why sin is allowed to thrive. He lists several specific instances.

 

Job 24:18-25

Job then turns his argument back on his visitors. He says they say God punishes the wicked now. He then shows how that is not so. He then tells them to prove that he is wrong.

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Job 25

By: Jim Crews

 

Job 25:1-6

Bildad jumps back into the conversation. He claims that there is no possible way that any man can be acceptable to God. From his limited view, this must seem true. However, we know that God makes us acceptable to Him when we faithfully obey His Word. 

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